Anadolu, Türk bağcılığının merkezidir. Türkiye’de şarap üretimi M.Ö. 3000 yıllarına kadar gitmektedir. Osmanlı döneminde şarap üretimi kanunla sınırlandırılmıştır. Kısıtlamalar ancak Atatürk 1923’te Türkiyeyi kurduğunda kaldırıldı ve Türkiye’nin şarap endüstrisi 1970’den 1980’e kadar hızla büyüdü. Turistlerin tüketimi endüstrinin canlanmasına yardımcı oldu. 1980’lerin ortalarında, birçok şarap üreticisi, kaliteli şarabın miktarından daha fazla kaliteye önem verdi. (Anadolu’da Şarap Tarihi Hakkında Devamını Oku)

Bu yeni akım beraberinde hızla uluslararası tanınırlık ve bireysel çeşitler için ödüller getirdi. Bugün Türk şarap üreticileri yılda 80 milyon litre civarında şarap üretiyor ve bu şarap tüm dünyaya ihraç ediliyor ve şarap içenler arasında giderek daha popüler hale geliyor. Üzümlerin çoğu Marmara bölgesinde, Ege kıyılarında ve İç Anadolu’da yetişir. Bununla birlikte, üzümlerin sadece yaklaşık %5’i şaraba dönüştürülür, geri kalanı sofralık, pekmez veya kuru üzüm olarak tüketilir.

Türkiye’nin güneydoğusunda yetişen yerel üzüm çeşitleri Boğazkere ve Öküzgözü, 1A kalitesiyle bilinir ve mükemmel bir kırmızı şarap verir. Narince üzümleri, Orta Anadolu’nun kuzeyindeki Tokat’ta yetişir ve işlenerek lezzetli beyaz şaraba dönüşür. Sauvignon Blanc üzümü de Türk topraklarında ve Türk güneşi altında yetişir. Şarap yetiştirme, üretim ve şişeleme kontrol edilir ve katı kriterlere tabidir.

Türk Şarap Bölgeleri

En önemli bağcılık bölgeleri Ege kıyılarında Ege bölgesindedir. Kuru iç kısımdan daha fazla neme sahip olan bu alanlarda, şarapların neredeyse üçte ikisi üretilmektedir. Bağcılıkta 22 yerel ve 12 uluslararası olmak üzere 34 üzüm çeşidi kullanılmaktadır.

Marmaris ve Trakya (Türkiye’nin Avrupa kısmı): Tekirdağ, Çanakkale, Edirne, Kırklareli ve Bilecik civarındaki bölgelerde Türk şaraplarının %40’ı üretilmektedir. Kırmızı üzüm çeşitleri: Papazkarası, Adakarası, Karaşeker, Gamay, Pinot Noir ve Cinsault. Aşağıdaki beyaz üzüm çeşitleri kullanılmaktadır: Semillon, Yapıncak, Beylerce, Clairette, Misket ve Riesling.

Anadolu’nun Ege kıyıları: Türk şarap üretiminin %20’si İzmir, Manisa ve Denizli çevresindeki bölgelerde. Kırmızı üzüm çeşidi olarak Çalkarası, Grenache ve Carignan’ın yanı sıra Merlot ve Cabernet Sauvignon da giderek kullanılmaktadır.

Gökçeada (İmroz) ve Bozcaada adaları Türkiye’nin Ege bölgesinde yer almaktadır.

Asmanın asıl vatanı sayılan Karadeniz’de Çorum, Tokat, Kastamonu ve Samsun yakınlarında daha küçük yetiştirme alanları vardır. Yerli Dimrit, Sergikarası (kırmızı) ve Narine (beyaz) üzümleri burada ağırlıklı olarak kullanılmaktadır.

İç Anadolu, sert kışlar ve sıcak yazlar ile karasal bir iklime sahiptir. Kalecik Karası, Papazkarası, Dimrit, Boğazkere ve Öküzgözü (bütün kırmızı çeşitleri) ve beyaz çeşitleri Emir, Narince ve Hasandede burada yetiştirilmektedir. Bölgeler Ankara, Kırıkkale, Kırşehir ve Niğde’dir.

Doğu Anadolu’da bağcılık Elazığ ve Güneydoğu Anadolu illeri Gaziantep, Mardin, Şanlıurfa ve Diyarbakır’da yapılmaktadır. Başlıca çeşitleri Öküzgözü, Boğazkere, Horozkarası (tümü kırmızı), Narince, Dökülgen ve Kabarcık’tır.

Anadolu'nun Şaraplık Üzümleri

Türkiye’de 800’ü genetik olarak farklı 1.200 – 1.500’den fazla üzüm çeşidi bulunmaktadır. Tüm bu çeşitler arasında 30 civarında seçkin şaraplık üzüm çeşidi bulunmaktadır. Aşağıdaki yerli ve uluslararası üzüm çeşitleri, şarap yapımında yaygın olarak kullanılır.

Adakarası, Alicante Bouchet, Barburi, Boğazkere, Bornova Misketi, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carignan, Chardonnay, Cinsault, Çalkarası, Çavuş, Dimrit, Emir, Gamay, Grenache, Kalecik Karası, Karalahna, Kuntra, Malbec, Merlot, Narince, Ök , Papazkarası, Petit Verdot, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Sangiovese, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Shiraz, Sultaniye, Tempranillo, Vasilaki, Viognier. (Anadolu Üzümleri Hakkında Daha Fazla Bilgi Edinin)

Türkiye'de Bağcılığın Yapısı

Şarap üretimine birkaç büyük şarap imalathanesi hakimdir. Son birkaç yılda kalite sıçraması yaşandı. Bu şarapların başarısı nedeniyle, şu anda Fransız şirketleri (châteaux) çizgisinde küçük şarap imalathaneleri oluşturuluyor. Yaklaşık 100 Türk şarap üreticisinin çoğu çok küçük ve ihracat yapmıyor. Üzüm bağları ülkenin dört bir yanına yayıldığından ve büyük şarap imalathanelerinin üzüm malzemesine çok fazla ihtiyacı olduğundan, üzümlerin bağdan şarap imalathanelerine soğutmalı nakliyede genellikle birkaç yüz kilometre taşınması gerekir.

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