Seçkin Yerli Şarap Üzümleri
Türkiye'nin yerli üzümleri
Türkiye’de 800’ü genetik olarak farklı 1.200 – 1.500’den fazla üzüm çeşidi bulunmaktadır. Tüm bu çeşitler arasında 30 civarında seçkin şaraplık üzüm çeşidi bulunmaktadır. Aşağıdaki yerli ve uluslararası üzüm çeşitleri, şarap yapımında yaygın olarak kullanılanlardır.
Adakarası, Alicante Bouchet, Boğazkere, Bornova Misketi, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carignan, Chardonnay, Cinsault, Çalkarası, Çavuş, Dimrit, Emir, Gamay, Grenache, Kalecik Karası, Karalahna, Kuntra, Malbec, Merlot, Narince, Öküzgözü, Papazkarası, Papaz , Petit Verdot, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Sangiovese, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Şiraz, Sultaniye, Tempranillo, Vasilaki, Viognier.
Anadolunun Yerli Şaraplık Üzüm Çeşitleri:
Barburi, antik çağlardan beri Türkiye’nin Hatay ilinin Antakya ilçesine özgü kırmızı bir üzümdür. Günümüzde florası çok nadirdir ve büyüme alanları dağlık bölgeler ve izole alanlar ile sınırlıdır. 2009 yılında Hatay merkezli Antioche Şaraphanesi, üzümü yok olmanın eşiğinden geri getirdi. Türkiye’de bu üzüm yetiştiren tek şaraphane olmaya devam ediyor. Değerli mantarları aramak gibi, bölgedeki insanlar da uzun zamandır ev şarabı veya pekmez (pekmez) olarak kullanmak için Barburi üzümlerinin yabani asmalarını arıyorlar. Ancak, bu geleneklerin çoğu yok olduğundan, bu yabani asmaların yerleri unutulmuştur. 2016 yılında Antioche ilk %100 Barburi şarabını piyasaya sürdü. Barburi, Piedmont’un Barbaresco’su ile karşılaştırılabilir. İtalyan meslektaşı gibi Barburi de son derece gıda dostudur ve sıcak yeşil biber ve tepsi kebabı gibi yerel spesiyalitelerin çoğuyla güzel bir şekilde eşleşir.
Cabernet Sauvignon gibi, Boğazkere de zengin aromalı, tam gövdeli şaraplar üreten geç olgunlaşan, kalın tenli bir çeşittir. Taninleri gençken oldukça sağlam olabilir ve meşe fıçının yaşlanması üzüme çok yakışır. Öncelikle güneydoğu Anadolu’da yetişen böğürtlen, siyah meyve aromalarının yanı sıra karanfil ve meyan kökü gibi baharatlara sahiptir. Yaşlanmayla birlikte Boğazkere, oldukça karmaşık tütün ve toprak kokuları geliştirir. Bu kadar koyu renkli bir şaraptan beklenebileceği gibi, aromaları siyah ahudududan duta ve kakao uçlarına kadar uzanan koyu renklidir. Boğazkere, gençliğinde biraz “yumuşatmak” ve daha ulaşılabilir kılmak için genellikle diğer yerli çeşitlerle harmanlanır. Boğazkere, Türkçe’de “boğaz gıdıklayan” anlamına gelir, çünkü ne zaman içtiğinizi her zaman bileceğiniz söylenir!
Bornova Misketi Ege’nin izmir şehri ve çevresinde yetiştirilmektedir. Bornova Misketi, Muskat’ın karakteristik lezzet ve aromalarını sergilemektedir. Bornova Misketi, açık altın renginde oldukça aromatik, canlı, hafif, içimi kolay ve sek tatlı, tatlı şaraplar için uygundur. Bornova Misketi’nin aroması hanımeli, fesleğen, gül, nane, bal, bergamot, melisa, portakal çiçeği, papatya, greyfurt ve kavunu andırıyor. Sek Muscat mükemmel bir aperatiftir. Ayrıca lezzetini aşmayan peynirlere, atıştırmalıklara, deniz ürünleri mezelerine ve salatalarına mükemmel eşlik ediyor. Tatlı Muscat, karamelize ve peynir bazlı tatlılar, haşlanmış ayva ve çedar gibi peynirler, yumuşak eski peynirler ve mavi peynirlerle iyi gider.
Çalkarasi is a grape grown in high altitude vineyards around the town of Çal, in the Denizli province. Soils in the Çal district range from decomposed, sandy alluviums to deeply chalky areas, and that’s where the grape thrives. Naturally high in acidity, Çalkarasi is a lightly tinted red, and is best suited to making rosé and sparkling wines. It’s telltale aroma is white peach with strawberry, and it can be spicy when made with extended skin contact. It makes light to medium-bodied wines. The cafés of Istanbul and Izmir horde most of the Çalkarasi rosé that is made, since rosé has always been fashionable near the Aegean Sea. Delicious with lighter fares such as sushi, shellfish, or just a fresh baguette and some butter.
Emir is the favored white varietal of Cappadocia and the only place in the world where is grown. It acquired its name (Emir = Ruler / Lord), from the fact that it was a quite popular wine at the local lords’ tables. It thrives in the high altitude (3,500 feet and higher) there, and is grown in volcanic soils. Many of the vineyards are ancient, with individual vine ages exceeding 200 years. Emir often has a slight greenish tinge to the color, with exuberant aromas of white flowers, citrus oils and kiwi. It has a defined delicacy, and is sometimes considered to be similar in flavor and scent to Albariño. Emir produces wines that are light-to-medium in body.
The cold nights at high altitude ensure that acidity is never lost as the grape ripens. It normally produces high-toned wines that are crisp and refreshing with a broad range of core-fruit flavors. Emir does not take well to oak aging, but it is often used as a base for sparkling wines.
Foça Karası is an ancient grape grown in Foça 2600 years ago. B.C. In the 500’s, when the Persians plundered the Foça, some of the Foca migrated to the west with their rowing ships and established the colony city of Marseille in France and continued to grow the grapes they took with them from Foca. It became the first grape recognized in France, where today the most delicious wines of the world are produced. However, it is the first grape grown in Europe. Finally, these grapes, which were grown by the Greeks in their own lands, that is in the old Foça, were abandoned to their fate after the exchange and were about to be exhausted.
Named for the Kalecik region in the Ankara province, Kalecik Karasi is one of Turkey’s most prized indigenous varietals. Diligently brought back from the edge of extinction by a dedicated group of growers and winemakers, Kalecik Karasi is known for its unique flavor and aromatic profile. This blue-black, thin-skinned variety produces fruity wines with low-to-moderate tannins, and bright acidity. Red fruits like strawberry, cherry and pomegranate are usually more prevalent on the palate than black or blue fruits, and often there is a vanillin and/or cocoa note underlying the fruit. It’s delicate aroma is unique, and once smelled is not forgotten. Though capable of reaching alcohol levels over 14%, such wines are often heavy-handed, and the best examples focus on the complexity of red fruits attained at a slightly lower ripeness. Although sometimes compared to Pinot Noir because of their similar red fruit orientation on the palate, in reality, that is where the similarity ends. Kalecik Karasi is unique on its own, and is a Turkish national treasure.
A rare, red grape traditionally grown as bush vines in the Anatolian (Asian) portion of Turkey, Karasakiz has a unique flavor. It’s reminiscent of old vine Zinfandel mixed with old, cobble-vined Grenache from the Southern Rhone, and is quite spicy. Also known as Kuntra in Greece, Karasakiz produces heady wines of only modest color, with a higher potential alcohol level than is typical for the indigenous Turkish varietals. Fruit from the ancient, head-pruned Karasakiz vines of Thrace has traditionally been sold by the local farmers to the distillery, as its higher sugar rate is prized by them. Today, Turkey’s winemakers are also trying to get this national treasure for themselves. Karasakiz is well-suited to the foods of summer grilling, and is best served with a light chill. Also great with smoked salmon, duck, or typical Turkish mezes like Fava bean purée, roasted red peppers, and warm hummus with pita.
Kuntra is the oldest grape variety cultivated in Bozcaada / Turkey. Its presence in Bozcaada has been documented for at least for 500. Even though similar Kuntra varieties can be found in Anatolia and in Bulgaria under different names such as Karasakız, Mavrut, Mavrobilla, Mavrella, it is Kuntra that is originally from Bozcaada. Grapes are pinkish colored, numerous, medium sized, and contain one or two seeds. In Bozcaada vineyards they are cultivated with the traditional method in which vine trunks (called omca in Turkish) are kept close to the soil. Vines have a length between 30-100 cm. Each trunk has 3-5 stems and on the top of each stem there are 2-4 short pruning sticks. This method is very commonly used in old vineyards in Turkey as it is inexpensive and easy to set up, but not suitable for mechanization
Merzifon Karası is sayed through the balkans in the roman period, that was been carried and breeded by the adige valley, which is located in the city of trento in north italy, and the name of merzifon was also marzemino.
Merzi̇fon Karasi is a medium size and tight conditions of grapes with late maturing (degination is usually the first week of october), dark purple colored, dry material (sugar), high and thin leather.
wines obtained from these grapes; medium body, high acidity, dark ruby colored with purple highlights, dried plum-damson plum, cherry and blackberry taste characteristics.
This aromatic white grape with small grains is grown near Izmir. The grape is Turkish, despite its popularity in Europe. It grows as goblet in the Mediterranean climate on the claylike, sandy soil of the Aegean coast. This juicy, thick-skinned grape doesn’t produce a lot of fruit. Misket has a high sugar concentration due to its unique flavor and the high summer temperatures of the region where it is grown. It has small grains and is aromatic.
Misket is one of the oldest grape varieties. In his book, Herodotes, the famous historian from Bodrum known as Halicarnassos in ancient times, describes wines made from this grape as “rose-flavored moskhatos.”
Grown in the Tokat region of Turkey (near the Black Sea), Narince means “delicately” in Turkish, and has a flavor profile similar to Rhone whites like Roussanne and Marsanne. It typically produces straw-to-yellow colored wines, with at least medium body. Aromatically, it has a profile that ranges from cut core-fruits to ripe tropical fruits. Oftentimes, there is a defined almond or marzipan note. Usually fermented to dryness, Narince has the requisite acidity for aging, and it is often aged in oak for added complexity. Its flavors are round, ranging from ripe Red Delicious apple to Meyer lemon to white pineapple, and good examples are often considered to have a creamy note. The leaves of Narince are the most favored variety for the making of dolmas (stuffed grape leaves), and it is the rare wine that actually compliments lemon flavors in foods.
One of Turkey’s most revered red wine grapes, Öküzgözü gets its name from its big red berries – in Turkish Öküzgözü means ”eye of the bull”. It produces medium-bodied wines with lots of ripe, red fruit flavors like cherry and pomegranate, along with a subtle spiciness. Known for its naturally soft tannins, Öküzgözü has been compared to Gamay by many wine pros, but usually produces a darker colored wine than Gamay does. Öküzgözü has moderate acidity, and matches well with a wide variety of foods. Its home is Eastern Anatolia. Capable of medium-term aging, Öküzgözü is often blended with Bogazkere, as Cabernet is blended with Merlot. The blend takes well to oak aging, and is a favorite in Turkish cafés since it is so easy to drink.
Considered to be one of the likely parents of Kadarka, Papaskarasi is a medium tinted blue/black grape. It has traditionally been grown in the hills above the Thracian plains and northward into the Balkans, although today newer plantings are becoming established in central Anatolia. Intensely aromatic, and with naturally high acidity for a red grape, Papaskarasi is a remarkably versatile grape to work with from a winemaker’s perspective. It produces wines that are low-alcohol, fruit-driven, and generally from 11-12.5%. It is quite unusual for it’s ripening curve, as the canes ripen first. Papaskarasi translates to “Pope’s grape” in Turkish, and commemorates the Byzantine Papacy, an era when the Pope resided in Constantinople (AD537-752). Legend has it that Papaskarasi was the favored wine of the pontiffs back then as well.
Mainly grown in Denizli and Manisa. Mostly consumed as table grape and raisins however it is also used in wine making. Gives light, easy to drink fruit flavoured and fresh wines. Dry and semi-dry wines can be produced with this type of grape. It is an aromatic grape with small grains and thin skin. Sultaniye bears pinapple, green apple, citrus and exotic fruit aromas. It has a Asparagus, Pear, Pineapple, Floral, Mango, Lemon, Golden and Green Apples, Hay aroma.
Yapincak is an ancient, white grape grown in northwest Turkey that has an association with the Sea of Marmara. It produces light to medium bodied wines that are low in alcohol. Yapincak produces small berries, with amongst the thinnest skins of any vitus vinifera cultivar. Known for its aromatics and mineral-like characteristics on the palkate, Yapincak has been saved from extinction by Turkey’s dedicated winemakers. It is hard to grow, being vulnerable to poor fruit-set. Yields are low, even in perfect years. Yapincak matches well to fried fish, white-sauced pizza or flatbreads, and soft cheeses. In Turkey the traditional fare for Yapincak has always been bluefish, but overfishing has made this perfect wine and food match a rarity. Today you are more likely to see it served with fried sardines in Istanbul.