Wine historians and ampelographers believe that the southeast part of Turkey was the origin of grape domestication, dating back to 9,000 BC. Turkey’s wine history is a reflection of the political and social climate of each period. The first evidence of viticulture and winemaking in Anatolia (central Turkey) dates back 7,000 years, when it was a custom to celebrate each vintage with a holiday.


Turkish wine production reached record levels when European vineyards were devastated by the phylloxera epidemic of the late 1800’s. In order to meet the resultant surge in European demand, the Ottoman Empire’s wine exports increased substantially reaching 340 million liters in 1904.


In 1927, the production of all alcoholic beverages went under the control of government monopoly, with the exception of wine. Private producers stayed in the market throughout this period, but remained relatively small in size. By the late 1980s, the Turkish economy began to integrate with other global economies and deregulation became possible. Rising tourism boosted wine sales. This was the impetus for the wineries to invest in the latest wine making technologies and raise the bar on production volumes.


Today, Turkey is experiencing a wine renaissance with rising quality, production capacity and export capability. And just at the time when Turkey’s wine industry is blossoming, the current government is imposing major limitations on marketing and selling wine in the domestic market.

 

Türkiye'nin Şarap Bölgeleri - Türkiye'nin Şarap Haritası

The wine regions of Turkey are listed below. Anatolia played an important role in the history of wine, and it is thought to have been one of the world’s first wine-producing regions. Turkey is geographically located on the wine belt thanks to its suitable climatic conditions and soil character. The vineyards in Turkey cover an area of 1,000,000 ha (2,500,000 acres). Annual grape harvest in Turkey accounts for 3.6 million tonnes putting it on the 6th place in the world. However, only 2% of that amount is suitable for wine production. Major wine regions are Aegean, Marmara and Central Anatolia.

Türkiye'nin Şarap Bölgeleri

Wine Regions of Turkey_Turkish Wine Region

Ege Şarap Bölgesi

Location:
The Aegean wine region is made up of viticultural areas in Turkey’s Aegean Region facing the Aegean Sea and Greek Islands. Primarily in the provinces of Manisa, Izmir, and Denizli. This wine region includes winemaking areas such as Eceabat and Bozcaada, districts of Çanakkale Province that are geographically part of the Marmara Region.
Climate:
Typical Mediterranean climate with hot summers and mild winters. It has a maritime climate in coastal parts (vineyards are at an altitude of 150 metres and are closer to say Bari or Athens) and continental climatic conditions (in the Anatolian plateau, the vineyards are at a height of 900 metres.
Precipitation differs between 400 – 1000 mm with an average of 550 mm per year.
There are about 80 days with precipitation, mainly during winter. The long-term mean temperature differs between 16-20°C in coastal parts and 12-33°C in inland parts. At high altitudes temperatures can rise to 40°C during summer and fall to -10°C in winter.
Soil Type:
Differs from clay loam in the lower elevations to calcarious chalks.
Wine Grape Production Share:
The Aegean region accounts for 52.7% of all the wine produced in Turkey.
The Grape Varieties of the Region are:
Indigenous Varieties: Boğazkere, Bornova Misketi, Çalkarası, Çavuş, Dimrit, Kalecik Karası, Karalahna, Kuntra, Narince, Öküzgözü, Sultaniye, Vasilaki.
International Varieties: Alicante Bouchet, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carignan, Chardonnay, Grenache, Malbec, Merlot, Mourvedre, Petit Verdot, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Sauvignon Blanc, Shiraz (Syrah), Tempranillo, Viognier.

Aegean Wine Region

Marmara Şarap Bölgesi

Location:
Marmara designates a region spread across southern Bulgaria (Northern Thrace),
north-eastern Greece (Western Thrace) and north-western Turkey.
Marmara has borders on three seas: the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Sea of
Marmara.
Climate:
Typical Mediterranean climate with hot summers and mild winters. It has maritime
climatic conditions.
Precipitation differs between 400 -1000 mm with an average of 550 mm per year.
The long-term mean temperature differs between 12 and 16°C.
It’s quite humid (average 73%).
Soil Type:
Soil changes from lime to gravelly loam and to dense cracking clays depending on
the sub region.
Wine Grape Production Share:
The Marmara region accounts for 13.6% of all the wine produced in Turkey.
The Grape Varieties of the Region are:
Indigenous Varieties:
Adakarası, Kalecik Karası, Papaz Karası.
International Varieties: Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Cinsault,
Gamay, Merlot, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillion, Shiraz (Syrah), Viognier.

Marmara Wine Region

Akdeniz Şarap Bölgesi

Location:
The Mediterranean wine region is the southern part of Turkey facing the Mediterranean Sea with wine production concentrated primarily in Antalya and Mersin provinces.
Climate:
Typical Mediterranean climate with hot summers and mild winters. It has a maritime climatic character.
Precipitation differs between 400-600 mm with an average of 500 mm per year.
The long-term mean temperature differs between 12 and 16°C.
Soil Type:
Differs from pebbly clay loam to calcareous chalks.
Wine Grape Production Share:
The Mediterranean region accounts for 0.2% of all the wine produced in Turkey.
The Grape Varieties of the Region are:
Indigenous Varieties:
Boğazkere, Kalecik Karası, Öküzgözü.
International Varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc, Shiraz (Syrah)

Mediterraniean Wine Region

Orta kuzey Anadolu Şarap bölgesi

Location:
Mid-Northern Anatolia consists of the two separate regions of Ankara and Uşak. Uşak is in the west of the region and Ankara is the more north-eastern part of the region. The Mid-Northern region is the heart of Anatolia right in the center of Turkey.
Climate:
Hot dry summers and cold winters. It has a continental climatic character.
This region, especially Ankara (the Kalecik subregion) with its more continental
climate of harsh winters and hot summers, is home for varieties like Kalecik Karası.
Precipitation differs between 200 – 400 mm with an average of 300 mm per year.
The long-term mean temperature differs between 8 and 12°C.
Soil Type:
Pebbly clay loam.
Wine Grape Production Share:
The Mid-Northern Anatolia region accounts for 3.3% of all the wine produced in
Turkey.
The Grape Varieties of the Region are:
Indigenous Varieties:
Boğazkere, Kalecik Karası, Öküzgözü.
International Varieties: Shiraz (Syrah)

Mid-Northern Anatolia Wine Region

Orta Doğu Anadolu şarap bölgesi

Location:
Mid-Eastern Anatolia is located in the east of Turkey. Tokat is at the north-west corner
of this area which is close to the Black Sea. Elazığ and Malatya are located nearer to
the south-east of Turkey.
Climate:
The dominant climate in the Elazığ and Malatya provinces is the terrestrial climate. The
winter is cold and precipitant whereas summer is hot and dry. However, due to the
natural and artificial lakes around the city, some partial variations from the climate are
experienced.
Tokat’s climate represents a transition between the Central Black Sea and the Inner
Anatolia climates. The climate is somewhat harsher at high altitude levels and in the
southern sections of the province.
Precipitation differs between 600 – 1000 mm with an average of 750 mm per year.
The long-term mean temperature differs between 12 and 16°C.
Soil Type:
Tokat: River bed and glaciated aluvial fan
Elazığ & Malatya: Red clay and decomposed granites varying to light chalky clay soils.
Wine Grape Production Share:
The Mid-Eastern Anatolia region accounts for 14.7% of all the wine produced in Turkey.
The Grape Varieties of the Region are:
Indigenous Varieties:
Boğazkere, Narince, Öküzgözü.
International Varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon

Mid-Eastern Anatolia Wine Region

Orta-güney Anadolu şarap bölgesi

Location:
Mid-Southern Anatolia is surrounded by Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray and Niğde.
Climate:
Hot dry summers and cold winters. It has a continental climatic character.
Cappadocia has a steppe climate, there is a great temperature difference between
day and night. It is cooler and drier than in the popular tourist areas of the
Mediterranean and the Aegean coasts.
Precipitation differs between 400-600 mm with an average of 500 mm per year.
The long-term mean temperature differs between 8 and 12°C.
Soil Type:
Sand, sandstone, decomposed volcanic, tuffa. Its poor volcanic soil is well suited to
the cultivation of vines.
Wine Grape Production Share:
The Mid-Southern Anatolia region accounts for 12.1% of all the wine produced in
Turkey.
The Grape Varieties of the Region are:
Indigenous Varieties:
Dimrit, Emir, Kalecik Karası, Narince, Öküzgözü,
International Varieties: Chardonnay, Malbec, Sauvignon Blanc, Tempranillo.

Mid-southern Anatolia Wine Region

Güneydoğu Anadolu şarap bölgesi

Location:
South-East Anatolia is in the south-eastern corner of Turkey, bordering Iraq and Syria.
Climate:
Rough and dry terrestrial climate is dominant in the Diyarbakır province. Very hot
during the day and cold at night during growing season.
Precipitation differs between 600 – 1000 mm with an average of 750 mm per year.
The long-term mean temperature differs between 12 and 16°C.
Soil Type:
Decomposed sandstone to red clays.
Wine Grape Production Share:
The South-East Anatolia region accounts for 3.4% of all the wine produced in Turkey.
The Grape Varieties of the Region are:
Indigenous Varieties:
Boğazkere.
International Varieties: N/A

South-East Anatolia Wine Region