There was a considerable amount of wine production before World War I and the War of Independence in Turkey. But wars affected production negatively, especially in the Thrace and Aegean regions.
The production of all alcoholic beverages went under the control of government monopoly in 1927, with the exception of wine, for which private production and the development of vineyards was still permitted. This was specifically done to develop and protect wine production. The only restriction, which in today’s terms could be called “controlled wine regions-appellation controllée”, was the permissions given to wine production on specific regions where wine grapes were being produced. In 1928 the government began to support wine producers with technical knowhow and semi-financial support. (There was also support for export tax exemptions and a support fee/kg).
In 1946 there were 28 small sized wineries all around Turkey exploring the potential quality of wine production with different varieties and terroirs under the Government Monopoly. Marcel Biron was also one of the consultants working for the Government Monopoly and identifying different wine regions and wines in Turkey (1937-1947).
The 1950’s government initiated French grape varieties for plantation in the Aegean and Thrace regions (Semillon, Clairette, Sylvaner, Gamay, Cinsaut, Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon are among the varieties planted and explored during these dates).
The subsequent decrease in quality began with the non-implementation of this “controlled wine regions” regulation as well as political changes in the 1960’s. Private producers stayed in the market throughout this period, but remained relatively small in size.